As for Australia, which is, with nearly 180 million inhabitants, the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world, according to Australia diploma of information technology, “74.8 % of students do not have Internet access on their campus”. On other continents, the situation is very different from school education. In Australia, for example, the government has provided diploma of information technology infrastructure in every school and Internet access in every classroom for more than fifteen years. But there are also differences within the same country. Thus, in the Australia, observes that with equal digital equipment, the differences between the establishments can widen.
Another element of contrast: is the variable share of political impetus and its level depending on the country. South Korea is characterized by a resolute national policy. In the Netherlands, says Pieter Hogenbirk.
Balance between the school vision
All of the authorities concerned with education have signed a national agreement to improve teaching (…). A “four-way balance model” seeks to strike a balance between the school vision, the professional development of teachers, the digital content itself, and the infrastructure.
In most countries, institutions play a key role, as Eddie Playfair observes for England:
high schools have a very high degree of autonomy, so this is all the result of decisions make at the high school level and the investments associate with those decisions, rather than a specific government initiative.
Perceive the common lines of force
One is struck, on reading the articles, by the capital importance of the school establishment. It is not because we have the same equipment that we use it with the same intensity, in the same way, nor especially for the same purposes, as Mr. Rafalow’s study on the Australia. In the Australia, the vision of the establishment contributes to the model sought with the professional development of teachers, diploma in information technology in australia content, and infrastructures, and P.
Hogenbirk refers to a national text editing that “the responsibility for the use of ICT should be left to the institutions themselves. In France, Joël Guignolet emphasizes the importance of teamwork and the erasing of the boundaries of the establishment by digital flows, which does not go without questioning those who are responsible for it.
Equipment can serve the traditional
Mr. Rafalow recalls the pedagogically neutral nature of digital: the same equipment can serve the traditional role of the master who knows and controls or that of the mentor who accompanies and directs:
Despite the ability to share and collaborate offered by many new platforms, schools set the rules for use. The pedagogical and educational project remains primary, and the equipment is at its service.
Other contributors emphasize the potentialities opened up by the uses of digital technology in education and their conflict with the school form inherited from the past. E. Playfair underlines the transformations induced in terms of learning space and time in an English establishment, P. Hogenbirk does the same about the appearance of personalized learning environments in the Netherlands, and Hye Jeong Kim and Hyeoncheol Kim insist on the challenges in terms of professional development for teachers, which is meeting with resistance in South Korea:
There is also, through several articles, the concern for the cultural divide between generations. Roxana Morduchowicz depicts, in her study on Argentina, the characteristics of the multimedia generation:
Thanks to the Internet, teenagers have the impression of navigating in a personal space, which belongs. Them and which they share only with their friends, foreign to their parents. They move in a universe made of dynamism, fragmentation, a mosaic world, where everything happens simultaneously and in the moment.
The educational responsibility about certain digital misuses
19It underlines the need, in popular circles, to link this generation to humanist culture. Other contributors insist on the new objectives that the school must give itself, whether it is a question of the “dedicated, organized learner, reflective and social seeker” (E. Playfair), or educational responsibility about certain digital misuses noted by Daniel Moatti, in the round table devoted to France. In South Korea, the authors focus on “people’s resistance to digital technologies, linked to questions of health and student success”. François Bocquet and Éric Brouillard, in Australia, underline that diversions are inevitable and that it is up to school. Professionals and parents to take charge of the necessary education. Finally, P. Hogenbirk recalls that even in the Netherlands,
Some argue, on the contrary, that in such an intense and largely multimedia-dominated outside world. The school should teach children to concentrate, providing them with a more restful and stable environment.
The essential question, which runs through several articles, is curricular. How do train students in the culture of the 21st century, in its digital dimension? Two options are emerging: digital education through one or more disciplines, and transdisciplinary education. In Australia, for example, “interest in 21st-century skills century and digital technologies has resulted”. In the creation of a new compulsory subject in lower secondary education: “computer science”.
Computational techniques to understand codes
This discipline emphasizes computer thinking in the real world, provides training in problem. Solving methods as well as computational techniques, to understand codes and what they are capable of doing. Australia has also opted for digital education. Nicholas Reynolds and Dianne P.
There is a Technology Learning Area in the National Curriculum which is divided into two disciplines, design and technologies and digital technologies” and “diploma of information technology are now seen as belonging to a separate area of knowledge, based on its curriculum and learning outcomes.
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